Working Smarter eFieldbook $12

We just cut the price of the eBook to $12.

eBook, $12.

Paper, $24.

By Charles Jennings, Harold Jarche, 
Clark Quinn, Jane Hart & Jay Cross

This is the first edition of the Fieldbook to incorporate QR codes. That’s what these funky-looking little bar codes are called. Point your smart phone at a QR code, and you’ll be led to a location on the net with more information. To take advantage of the QR codes, download any bar code reader to your smart phone, for example QuickMark.

In this 2011 edition, we added a more lucid description of workscapes, streamlined the social learning chapter, updated the cheat sheets, and included a glossary.



Working smarter is the key to sustainability and continuous improvement. Knowledge work and learning to work smarter are becoming indistinguishable. The accelerating rate of change in business forces everyone in every organization to make a choice: learn while you work or become obsolete.

The infrastructure for working smarter is called a workscape. It’s not a separate function so much as another way of looking at how we organize work. It’s the platform where learning and work transpire. It’s an organization’s learning ecosystem.

Workscaping helps people grow so that their organizations may prosper. Workscapes are pervasive. They are certainly not lodged in a training department. In fact, they may make the training department obsolete.

Old-style training enraged many managers because it was separate from work. Why isn’t Sally at work today? Because she’s in training.

It needn’t be this way, particularly since knowledge work and learning are nearly indistinguishable. A major part of modern instructional design is actually workscape design.

Workscape designers, like landscape designers, start with the existing environment. They assess what’s given, imagine a more harmonious arrangement, and prescribe additions and adjustments to accomplish it. By contrast, instructional designers are accustomed to building new programs from the ground up, like architects who begin by chopping down trees and leveling contours so they can plan from a blank sheet of paper.

Industrial age workers created value in factories. Knowledge workers create value in workscapes. A workscape is a platform where knowledge workers collaborate, solve problems, converse, share ideas, brainstorm, learn, relate to others, talk, explain, communicate, conceptualize, tell stories, help one another, teach, serve customers, keep up to date, meet one another, forge partnerships, build communities, and distribute information.

In most cases, the knowledge work pays the freight; the informal learning comes along for the ride. If an organization is committed to Microsoft Sharepoint, IBM Lotus, Salesforce, SAP, or another proprietary solution for in-house communication and project management, the workscape designer tweaks that platform for optimal learning rather than trying to replace it.

An online workscape is a network tuned for learning and collaboration.

A typical workscape features these components:

  • Participant profiles, expertise locators
  • Information flows, feeds, subscriptions
  • Information repository, archives, search engine
  • Forums for written discussion by topics or by teams
  • Facility for online discussion, instant messaging, video conferencing
  • Unfettered access to the resources of the internet

Our current work involves figuring out how to inject best practices from adult learning theory, brain science, social psychology, business execution, and elsewhere into workscapes.
Organizations must stop thinking of learning as something separate from work. The further we get into what Dan Pink calls the conceptual era, the greater the convergence of working and learning. In many cases, they are already one and the same.

Workers in a workscape learn by solving problems, coming up with fresh thinking, and collaborating with colleagues. They don’t learn about these things; they learn to do them.

The workscape is the aspect of an organization where learning and development become never-ending processes rather than one-time events. The workscaping viewpoint helps knowledge workers become more effective professionally and fulfilled personally. A sound workscape environment empowers workers to be all that they can be.

Workscapes match flows of know-how with workers solving problems and getting things done. They are the aspect of workplace infrastructure that provides multiple means of solving problems, tapping collective wisdom, and collaborating with others.

Workscapes are not a new structure but rather a holistic way of looking at and reformulating existing business infrastructure. They use the same networks and social media as the business itself.

Technology is never the most important part of this. Foremost are people, their motivations, emotions, attitudes, roles, their enthusiasm or lack thereof, and their innate desire to excel. Technology, be it web 2.0 or instructional design, social psychology, marketing, or intelligent systems, only supports what we’re helping people to accomplish. 

As business de-emphasizes industrial-era command-and-control systems to make way for agile, sense-and-respond networks, the structure of business adapts to its new environment.


Preface    20
Cataclysm    20
Internet Time Alliance    22
Working Smarter    23
Terra Nova    23
Workscapes    26
Motivation    34
Sources of knowhow    35
What’s wrong with most training?    39
Payoff    41
The Learning Lifecycle    44
Network Effects    46
Business Results    53
What can we do to improve this informal learning?    54
Techniques and Patterns    56
Reflection    57
A learning pattern language    57
Issues    60
Technology is moving ahead, with or without you    63
What’s holding us back?    63
What counts    64
Getting Started    66

Informal Learning
Johnny Appleseed    68
The Informal Learning Poster    72
THE WEB    87
JUST DO IT    88
Where did the 80% come from?    90
What Would Ivan Illich Do?    94

Social Learning
Social Learning in the Workplace Today    105
The State of Workplace Learning in 2010    105
Social Learning Tools    120
Twitter and the Law of the Few    123
10 Ways to use Social Media for Professional Development    127
A framework for social learning in the enterprise    129
Making social learning work    132
Analyzing social learning    133
The Results of Connecting    134
If not now, when?    135
Social Learning Strategy Checklist    138
Culture    139
Approach and Methods    139
Planning    141
Launch Activities    143
Technical Stuff, Legal, Compliance    144
Learning Communities in the Extended Enterprise    145
Community Management    146
Professional Development, Skills, Competencies    147

The Business Case
What keeps executives awake at night    148
Results Even a CFO Can Love    149
Speak the Language of Business    151
You and your sponsor    153
The Metrics Cycle    153
Don’t just talk like a business person; become one    155
Informal Learning: A Sound Investment    156
ROI is in the mind of the beholder    159
The Business Case for Soft Numbers    160
Intangibles Rule    162
Why Waste Money and Resources on Training?    164
The cost of inefficient methods    165
The evidence    167
Upwards – Following the Dotted Line    171
Performance Support Trumps Training Every Time    172
Decisions, decisions. Business decisions.    174
Conceptual Workers    176
Training Directors    177
Managers    178
Executive management    179
The Future of the Training Department    182
Twentieth century limited    182
Century 21    183
Embracing complexity    184
Inverting the Pyramid    185
A New Model for Training    186
Next?    187
Become a Chief Meta-Learning Officer    187
The View From the Balcony    188
Close the Training Department    191
Assess Opportunities for Process Improvement    193
Network Era Productivity: Not Your Father’s ROI    194
Traditional ROI    195
What You Can’t See    196
Making Decisions in the Network Era    197
Identifying and Measuring ROII    199
Increase in Network Size    200
Increase in Connection to Valuable Third Parties    200
Increase in Number of Projects    201
Informed Judgment    201

Develop Your Elevator Pitch for a Learning Initiative

Workshop structure    204
What makes a good pitch    205
Project Planning Form    207
Hints for developing your plan    209
The Issue    209
Impact    211
People    211
Methods    212
Financial Impact    213
Implementation    213
Vision    213
Timing    213
Name    214

Cheat sheets

Donald Clark: 10 ways to shorten courses    215
Lessons Learned from a 12 social learning implementations    217
Quotations from Clark Aldrich    218
Cybernetics with Paul Pangaro    219
Donald Clark: 10 techniques to massively increase retention    221
Five Easy Steps to an Instant Infrastructure for Social Learning    223
Jennings/Reid-Dodick “C” Curve for L&D    227
Five Ingredients of Making eLearning Work    228
Dimensions of Clark Quinn’s Learning Environment    232
Five Big Factors of Personality – OCEAN    233
Four-factor Mobile Learning Framework    233
Four Predictions for 2010    234
10 General Principles for Leading and Managing in the Interconnected Knowledge Workplace    235
John Medina’s Brain Rules    236
The World Café    237
Concepts from the Net    238
SMARTER Approach to Workplace Learning    240
Jay’s First Principles: People    240
Jay’s First Principles: Things    241
Jay’s First Principles: Technique    243
Clark Quinn: Performance Environment    243
Dave Snowden’s Cynevin Framework    245
Dan Pink’s Evolution to the Conceptual Age    247
Andrew McAfee’s Characteristics of Enterprise 2.0    248
Dion Hinchcliffe’s Update of McAfee’s SLATES    249
Dion Hinchcliffe: Social Business Models    251
Charles Jennings on Governance    252
Don’t Take Jay’s Advice    253
Clark Quinn’s 7 C’s of Natural Learning    253
Responsibilities of Chief Learning Officers    254
Donald Clark: Do happy sheets work?    254
Donald Clark: 10 reasons to dump lectures    255
Donald Clark: 10 proven facts about learning    257

Instructional Design 2.0
Designing for an uncertain world    262
Instructional Design or Interactivity Design in an interconnected world?    265
Who Needs Training, Again?    270
Collaboration    276
Trust    276
Trust and Getting Things Done in Organizations    277
Trust and ‘A Seat at the Table’    277
Different Types of Trust    278
Moving L&D up the Agenda    278
Come Together    279
Collaborate or Die    281
Collaboration rules    282
Many Happy Returns    282
Why bother?    283
Social media for collaboration    283
Whose Learning?    292
Personal Knowledge Management    294
How to Kick Off Collaborative Project Groups    295
Gain team member commitment    297
Who Knows    300
Emotions Trump Logic    302
Meta-learning    302
New Roles for Instructional Professionals    304
Personal Intellectual Capital Management    305
Storytelling    307
The Value of Not Re-inventing the Wheel    309
Unmeetings    311
Why Wiki    313
Content    315
What People Need to Know    315
Social data    316
Access is power    317
Living with dynamic knowledge    317
New focus for training: Forget the ephemera and get down to core skills    318
The Core of Learning Content in the Internet Age    320
Traditional Model – Content-centric learning    322
What’s Worth Knowing?    322
Third Order Find Skills    324
When it’s just so obvious NOT to train it’s painful to watch it happen    325
Visual Learning    328
Where Performance Support Trumps Training    328
Forever Beta    329
Environmental Design    331
Community    333
Professional Development    333
How does one become a professional?    336
How do workers learn to do their jobs?    336
How much has eLearning changed in its dozen-year lifespan?    337

Stories of Working Smarter
Stories    340
Stop the Presses    341
IBM’s Social Media Program    343
Booz Allen    345
Océ    346
Pitney Bowes & Yammer    347
Telus    348
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) – Intellipedia    350
Pfizer    351
EDR’s Commonground    352
Social Snippets    353
Each one teach one    356
Intelpedia    356
The value of not reinventing the wheel    356
Comply    360
Tap into collective intelligence    360
I think, therefore, where are my keys?    361
People like us    362
Empower your ecosystem    362
SAP Developer Network (SDN)    363
Wikipedia    363
Xerox Repair    364
Ace Hardware    365
FindLaw    365
Ford Motors SyncMyRide    365
Cook Medical    366
Google    366
Proctor & Gamble    366
Innocentive    366
Cisco’s Idea Zone    367
Scottrade    367
Cienna    368
Caterpillar    368
British Airways    368
Twitter 101 at Dell Computer    369
BesyBuy’s Twelpforce    370
British Telecom Dare to Share    371
SFR    372
Agilent Technologies    372
Worldwide Fund for Nature: learn2perform    373
Nationwide Insurance    373
Dirty Words    375

Rethinking learning in organizations
Connections    378
Learning is not enough    380
The Future Shape of Business    380

Back Matter
What comes next    383
Glossary    384
Bibliography    405
People    408
About the primary authors    409
Where Jay is coming from    411
About Internet Time Group    414
Evolution of the Unbook    417
Turn on to Working Smarter    420
About Internet Time Alliance    420
Internet Time Lab    425


Leave a Reply