What are the myths and realities related to current systemic changes in U.S. jobs and employment? In a recent New York Times column, Paul Krugman correctly muses that neither political party wants to talk about reducing unemployment. But he then states, “Bear in mind that the unemployed aren’t jobless because…they lack the necessary skills.” His prescription for unemployment: “We could have W.P.A. type programs putting the unemployed to work doing useful things like repairing roads.”
Unfortunately, we are not living in the 1930s. Major road building construction has been automated and mostly requires skilled trade workers who have completed technical training programs. Jobs for common laborers are disappearing.
Krugman is correct when he says, “There is nothing wrong with our workers—remember just four years ago the unemployment rate was below 5 percent.” It is true that most Americans are hard working people, but Krugman wrongly attributes the past situation to a highly skilled workforce.
Over the last decade a jobs revolution has been quietly building. Increasing numbers of lower and middle skill jobs have been automated in every economic sector. By 2007 the housing bubble had badly distorted the U.S. labor market economy. Over the prior ten years the housing and financial sectors absorbed a disproportionate number of workers. When the bubble broke in 2008, many people in financial positions began moving into other jobs in which they could use their mathematical skills. However, with the glut of housing inventory, even skilled construction workers are experiencing difficultly in finding work. As the president of the Minneapolis Federal Reserve observed, “It’s hard to turn construction workers into nurses.”
Manpower’s 2011 Talent Shortage Survey reports that 52 percent of U.S. companies indicated they were experiencing significant difficulty in hiring health care technicians, skilled trade workers, sales representatives, IT people, and engineers. This was up from 14 percent in 2010. Projections indicate that by 2025, 25 percent of the U.S. GDP will be spent on health-care services.
The U.S. labor economy is stalling largely because we can’t create the skills, rather than we can’t create the jobs. This helps explain the growing unemployment paradox in which the United States can have 24 million people who are jobless, underemployed (working part-time when full-time is needed) or who are frustrated and have dropped out of the job market, while there are over 5 million advertised and unadvertised job vacancies!
In Cool Hand Luke, the cult Paul Newman movie, the southern chain gang sheriff tells Luke after he is recaptured, “What we got here is a failure to communicate, a failure to communicate!” What we now have is our society’s failure to clearly communicate how the new realities of the labor market will affect every U.S. citizen.
The United States is now part of a global knowledge-based economy. The ready availability of skilled people, not location, is the primary driver of employment. Our ability to provide people over the next decade with the right skills for individual businesses, regions, or the United States as a whole will largely determine our future success or failure.
America’s broken employment infrastructure can be repaired in two ways. First in the short-term to fill current vacant jobs, businesses can once again offer entry-level job-training programs for those currently unemployed who have some of the required job skills and a willingness to learn the rest.
Second in the long-term, businesses need to participate in community partnerships to rebuild the broken talent-creation system. From the early grades through college, we need career information and education, career academies, and higher education programs that will increase the number of well educated students and connect them to a career pipeline for employment. This overhaul of the education-to-employment system will help sustain and grow our local and national economies. Already over 1,000 U.S. regional talent innovation networks have formed these extended community partnerships and are beginning to rebuild their jobs infrastructures.
Like Paul Krugman, I too am “against learned helplessness.” I also agree that “We don’t have to accept high unemployment,” but I see the path forward through expanding these local community collaborative efforts to rebuild outdated education and training systems across America.